AI PrivacyAI SafetyAI SecuritySecuring-AISecurity of AI

Why We Need a Chief AI Security Officer (CAISO)


Artificial Intelligence (AI) has quickly, nay, explosively transitioned from a sci-fi concept to a foundational pillar of modern business. A recent report by McKinsey highlights the rise of generative AI, revealing that within less than a year of its public debut, a staggering one-third of surveyed organizations have integrated generative AI into at least one business function. Gartner predicted that by 2024, 75% of enterprises will shift from piloting to operationalizing AI. I can’t recall seeing any other emerging technology in history take off as quickly as AI has.

Keep in mind, when I discuss AI adoption, I am not just referring to using ChatGPT for drafting emails or having an ML system flagging cybersecurity alert up to analysts. It’s much more profound than that. Organizations are entrusting AI with a growing array of tasks to operate independently. Whether it’s customer service chatbots handling queries or sophisticated supply chain management and automation of physical goods movements, the value of AI’s autonomous capabilities is becoming undeniable. It’s evident that businesses aren’t just warming up to the idea; they’re actively seeking ways to grant AI more autonomy in their day-to-day operations.

As more businesses and more departments jump on the AI bandwagon we’re seeing a whole new world of challenges pop up. With every new AI integration, the complexities of ensuring its secure, compliant and ethical deployment grow exponentially.

The Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) I’ve spoken to are already losing sleep just from the “traditional” cybersecurity challenges. The ever-faster-evolving cyber threat landscape is already a constant source of anxiety. Now, imagine their stress levels when their organizations start adopting autonomous AI systems in various pockets of the organization—systems CISOs weren’t consulted about and have little clue on how to secure. It’s enough to give anyone an ulcer. As one CISO describes it: “I feel like I am trying to cross a busy intersection blindfolded; at midnight; in a black onesie…”

This is where the idea of a “Chief AI Security Officer” (CAISO) comes in. This dedicated executive will not only safeguard AI systems but also ensure that businesses harness AI’s potential without compromising on security, ethics, or compliance. As AIs continue to reshape industries, the CAISO will be at the forefront, navigating the challenges and opportunities of this new AI-driven landscape.

Key CAISO Responsibilities

With AI’s breakneck expansion, the distinctions between ‘cybersecurity’ and ‘AI security’ are becoming increasingly pronounced. While both disciplines aim to safeguard digital assets, their focus and the challenges they address diverge in significant ways. Traditional cybersecurity is primarily about defending digital infrastructures from external threats, breaches, and unauthorized access. On the other hand, AI security has to address unique challenges posed by artificial intelligence systems, ensuring not just their robustness but also their ethical and transparent operation as well as unique internal vulnerabilities intrinsic to AI models and algorithms. These include adversarial attacks, model bias, and data poisoning. Furthermore, unlike most software that remains stable until patched, AI systems are in a constant state of flux, learning and adapting from new data. This dynamism introduces a fresh set of monitoring challenges, as the system’s behavior can change over time, even without explicit reprogramming.

In AI security, the very system we guard could turn into our greatest adversary.

Some of the key differences CAISO would have to address include:

AI Model Security

AI Model Security focuses on the protection and defense of machine learning and deep learning models from various threats and vulnerabilities. As AI models become integral to business operations, they become attractive targets for malicious actors. Threats can range from adversarial attacks, where slight input modifications can deceive a model into making incorrect predictions, to model inversion attacks, where attackers attempt to extract sensitive information from the model’s outputs. Another concern is model theft, where attackers try to replicate a proprietary model by querying it repeatedly. Ensuring the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of AI models is paramount. This involves not only defending against direct attacks but also ensuring that the model remains robust and reliable in its predictions, even in the face of malicious inputs or environmental changes. Proper AI model security ensures that these computational brains continue to operate as intended. For more info on AI security see AI Security 101.

AI Supply Chain Security

This function would focus on ensuring the security of the entire AI supply chain, from data collection tools and infrastructure to third-party software libraries and pre-trained models. A compromised element anywhere in the supply chain could introduce vulnerabilities into the final deployed AI system. Given the increasing reliance on AI for critical decisions and operations, ensuring the security of the AI supply chain is paramount.

AI Infrastructure Security

AI Infrastructure Security focuses on protecting the underlying systems and platforms that support the development, deployment, and operation of AI solutions. This encompasses the hardware, software frameworks, cloud platforms, and the networks. As AI models process vast amounts of data and often require significant computational resources, they can become prime targets for cyberattacks. A breach in AI infrastructure can lead to unauthorized data access, model tampering, or even the deployment of malicious AI models.

While traditional cybersecurity handled by CISOs does cover aspects like data integrity, infrastructure security, and protection against unauthorized access, the specific nuances of AI infrastructure security make this a specialized domain. In my mind.

Some of the AI infrastructure-specific security challenges that are different from traditional cybersecurity include:

  • Specialized Hardware: AI often requires specialized hardware like Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and Tensor Processing Units (TPUs) for training and inference. These devices can have vulnerabilities distinct from traditional CPUs.
  • Data Flow Complexity: AI systems often involve complex data pipelines, moving vast amounts of data between storage, processing, and serving infrastructure. Ensuring the security and integrity of this volume and velocity of data would be a new challenge for many CISOs.
  • Model Serving: Once trained, AI models are deployed in inference engines, which might be exposed to external requests. These engines can be targeted for model extraction or poisoning through approaches that wouldn’t be familiar to traditional CISOs.
  • Pipeline Dependencies: AI pipelines often depend on various open-source libraries and tools. Ensuring these dependencies are free from vulnerabilities and are regularly updated is a unique challenge that, I would argue, not many CISOs have faced at the same scale.
  • Real-time Constraints: Some AI applications, like those in autonomous vehicles or real-time anomaly detection, have real-time processing constraints. Ensuring security measures don’t introduce latency is a delicate balance and it wouldn’t be a common experience for majority of traditional CISOs.

MLOps and ModelOps Security

MLOps, a fusion of Machine Learning and Operations, emphasizes the seamless integration of ML into production environments. MLOps security, therefore, focuses on ensuring the safety and integrity of this entire pipeline – from data collection and model training to deployment and monitoring. It addresses challenges like versioning of models, secure data access during training, and safe model deployment in real-time applications.

While the AI security mentioned above broadly encompasses the protection of AI models, data, and infrastructure, MLOps security dives deeper into the operational aspects. It’s concerned with the continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD) processes specific to ML workflows. This includes safeguarding automated testing environments, ensuring only validated models are deployed, and monitoring models in production for any drift or anomalies. In essence, while AI security provides the overarching protective framework, MLOps security ensures that the day-to-day operations of integrating ML into business processes remain uncompromised.

AI Data Protection

AI Data Protection is about ensuring the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data used in AI systems. Given that AI models are only as good as the data they’re trained on, protecting the training and validation data is critical. This not only involves protecting data from unauthorized access but also ensuring that the data remains unbiased, representative, and free from malicious tampering. It also reduces the organizational regulatory risk exposure as upholding data privacy, especially in the age of GDPR and other growing global data protection regulations, is non-negotiable.

Traditional data privacy controls focus on encrypting data, setting up firewalls, and controlling access. However, with AI, there are unique challenges. For instance, even if data is anonymized, AI models can sometimes reverse-engineer and reveal personal information, a phenomenon known as “model inversion.” To counteract this, techniques like differential privacy are employed. Differential privacy ensures that AI models, when queried, don’t reveal specific data about an individual, even indirectly. It introduces “noise” to the data in a way that maintains the data’s overall utility for training models but prevents the extraction of individual data points. This is just one example of how AI data protection requires a fresh approach, beyond traditional privacy and data protection measures.

Regulation & Compliance

AI is, rightly so, already drawing attention of countless regulatory bodies. The landscape of AI-specific regulations and standards is rapidly evolving. Sometimes it feels like it’s changing hourly. These regulations aim to ensure that AI systems are transparent, fair, ethical, and do not inadvertently harm users or perpetuate biases. They cover privacy and data protection, transparency, fairness, right to explanation, ethical use, fairness, export of defense or dual-use systems, cybersecurity, and so on.

Moreover, different industries might have their own set of AI guidelines. For instance, AI in healthcare might be subject to stricter regulations concerning patient data privacy and model explainability than AI in entertainment.

CAISOs must ensure that as their organizations innovate with AI, they remain compliant with both current regulations and are prepared for future legislative shifts. This requires a close collaboration with legal and compliance teams, and a proactive approach, continuously monitoring the regulatory environment, and ensuring that AI deployments are both ethical and compliant.

Ethical AI Deployment

The deployment of AI systems goes beyond just technical and regulatory considerations; it is inextricably linked with ethics. Ensuring ethical AI deployment means guaranteeing that AI systems operate fairly, transparently, and without unintended biases. Ethical challenges arise when AI models, trained on historical data, perpetuate or even amplify existing societal biases. For example, a recruitment AI tool might favor certain demographics over others based on biased training data, leading to unfair hiring practices. The ethical use of AI also encompasses transparency and explainability. Stakeholders should be able to understand how AI systems make decisions, especially in critical areas like healthcare, finance, or criminal justice. CAISOs must also consider the broader societal implications of AI deployments. For example, while an AI system might optimize efficiency in a business process, it could lead to job displacements.

Navigating these ethical challenges requires CAISOs to collaborate closely with diverse teams, from data scientists to human rights experts and ethicists.

AI Explainability and Interpretability

While not strictly a security concern, the ability to explain and interpret AI decisions is crucial for trust. As AI systems become more complex, understanding their decision-making processes becomes less straightforward. This poses a challenge, especially when AI-driven decisions have significant consequences, such as in medical diagnoses, financial lending, or criminal sentencing. Explainability refers to the ability to describe in human terms why an AI system made a particular decision. Without this, it’s challenging to trust and validate the system’s outputs.

Interpretability, on the other hand, relates to the inherent design of the AI model. Some models, like deep neural networks, are often termed “black boxes” because their internal workings are hard to decipher. CAISOs face the challenge of ensuring that these models are both effective and interpretable, allowing for potential audits, reviews, or checks. The goal is to strike a balance between model performance and the ability to understand and explain its decisions. This not only builds trust among users and stakeholders but also aligns with emerging regulations that demand greater transparency in AI decision-making.

Bias Detection and Mitigation

The issue of bias in AI isn’t just a technical hiccup; it’s a profound ethical concern that CAISOs must grapple with. AI systems, being trained on vast amounts of data, can inadvertently learn and perpetuate the biases present in that data. This isn’t about a machine making an innocent mistake; it’s about systems potentially making decisions that favor one group over another or perpetuating harmful stereotypes.

Imagine a hiring AI that, due to biased training data, favors candidates from a particular background over others. Or consider a facial recognition system that struggles to accurately identify individuals from certain ethnic groups. Such biases can have real-world consequences, ranging from unfair job opportunities to misidentification by law enforcement. CAISOs have the responsibility to implement rigorous bias detection mechanisms and, once detected, to deploy strategies to mitigate these biases. This ensures that AI systems are fair, equitable, and don’t perpetuate or amplify societal inequalities.

Continuous Learning and Adaptation

Unlike traditional software that remains static until manually updated, AI systems have the potential to continuously evolve, refine their knowledge, and improve over time. The problem is that such evolving systems can drift over time. Ensuring that this drift doesn’t introduce vulnerabilities or biases is a significant challenge. CAISOs must strike a balance, ensuring AI systems can learn and adapt to new information while maintaining their integrity and purpose. This involves monitoring the learning process, validating new knowledge, and periodically recalibrating the AI to ensure it remains on the right track.

Disinformation and Deepfakes

With the rise of AI-generated content, defending against and detecting deepfakes and other forms of AI-generated disinformation is a growing concern. Deepfakes, which are hyper-realistic but entirely fake content generated by AI, can range from altered videos of public figures to fabricated voice recordings. The implications are vast: from perfectly-personalized, high-volume spearphishing campaigns to spreading false news and damaging reputations.

Imagine a scenario where a deepfake video of a CEO announcing a company merger goes viral, leading to stock market chaos. Or consider the ramifications of a fabricated voice recording used to authorize financial transactions. CAISOs must be at the forefront of developing detection tools to identify and counter these AI-generated falsities. This involves not just technical solutions but also raising awareness and educating stakeholders about the potential risks.

Cyber-Kinetic Security

The fusion of the digital and physical worlds through AI-driven autonomous systems introduces a new realm of security concerns for Chief AI Security Officers (CAISOs): the Cyber-Kinetic challenge. In these cyber-physical systems, a cyber attack doesn’t just result in data breaches or software malfunctions; it can lead to real-world, kinetic impacts with potentially devastating consequences. Imagine an AI-driven power grid being manipulated to cause blackouts, or an autonomous vehicle’s system being hacked to cause collisions.

The stakes are high, especially when human lives, well-being, or the environment are on the line. A compromised AI system controlling a chemical plant, for instance, could lead to environmental disasters. CAISOs, therefore, must ensure that these systems are not only digitally secure but also resilient to attacks that aim to cause physical harm. This involves a multi-layered approach, integrating robust digital defenses with fail-safes and redundancies in the physical components.

Human-AI Collaboration Security

Somewhat overlapping with previous topics, but, in my mind worth separate consideration is the Human-AI Collaboration – one most promising yet challenging areas of AI adoption. As AI systems become teammates rather than just tools, ensuring the security of this partnership becomes paramount for Chief AI Security Officers (CAISOs). It’s not just about ensuring the AI behaves correctly; it’s about ensuring that the human-AI interaction is secure, trustworthy, and free from external manipulations.

Imagine a scenario where an AI assistant provides recommendations to a doctor for patient treatment. If the integrity of this collaboration is compromised, it could lead to incorrect medical decisions. Similarly, in industries like finance or defense, a manipulated suggestion from an AI could lead to significant financial or security risks. CAISOs must ensure that the communication channels between humans and AIs are secure, the AI’s recommendations are transparent and verifiable, and that there are mechanisms in place to detect and counteract any attempts to deceive or mislead either the human or the AI. In the age of collaborative AI, the security focus shifts from just protecting the AI to safeguarding the entire human-AI collaborative ecosystem.

Physical Security of AI-Driven Systems

While much of the focus on AI security revolves around digital threats, the physical security of AI-driven systems is equally crucial for Chief AI Security Officers (CAISOs) to consider. AI systems, especially those deployed in critical infrastructure or in the field, can be targets for physical tampering, sabotage, or theft. For instance, sensors feeding data into an AI system could be manipulated at the analog part of the sensor, or the hardware on which AI models run could be physically accessed to extract sensitive information or inject malicious code.

Moreover, edge devices, like IoT gadgets powered by AI, are often deployed in unsecured environments, making them vulnerable to physical attacks. CAISOs must ensure that these devices are tamper-proof and can detect and report any physical breaches. This might involve using secure hardware enclaves, tamper-evident seals, or even self-destruct mechanisms for highly sensitive applications.

Robustness to Environmental Changes

As AI systems become more integrated into our daily operations, their ability to remain resilient and effective amidst environmental changes becomes another new concern. It’s not just about an AI’s ability to function in a stable environment; it’s about ensuring that the AI can adapt and respond effectively when the surrounding conditions shift. CAISOs, in collaboration with AI engineers, must ensure that AI systems are not only trained on diverse and representative data but also have mechanisms to detect, adapt, and respond to environmental changes. This involves continuous monitoring, retraining, and updating of AI models to keep them relevant and effective.

Post-Deployment Monitoring

Ensuring that AI systems function as intended post-deployment is another critical responsibility for CAISOs. Once an AI system is live, it interacts with real-world data, users, and other systems, all of which can introduce unforeseen challenges. An AI model that performed well during testing might start behaving unexpectedly when exposed to new types of data or malicious inputs. Or over time, the model might drift from its intended purpose due to changes in the data it processes. CAISOs must establish robust post-deployment monitoring mechanisms to track the performance, behavior, and health of AI systems in real-time. This involves setting up alerts for anomalies, regularly auditing the system’s decisions, and having a feedback loop to refine and recalibrate the AI as needed. In essence, post-deployment monitoring ensures that the AI system remains reliable, trustworthy, and aligned with its intended purpose throughout its lifecycle.

Quantum Threats to AI

Quantum computers, with their ability to process vast amounts of data simultaneously, can potentially crack encryption methods that are currently deemed unbreakable. This means that AI systems, which often rely on encryption for data protection and secure communications, could become vulnerable to quantum-powered attacks. Moreover, quantum algorithms might be able to reverse-engineer AI models or find vulnerabilities in them at speeds previously thought impossible. For CAISOs, the challenge is twofold: understanding the evolving quantum threat landscape and proactively developing strategies to safeguard AI assets in a post-quantum world. This includes researching quantum-resistant encryption methods and rethinking current AI security protocols in light of quantum capabilities.

Where Should the CAISO Sit in the Organizational Structure?

Realistically, when organizations first recognize the need for a CAISO, it’s likely that this role will initially report to the Chief Information Security Officer (CISO). This is a natural starting point, given the overlapping concerns of AI and traditional cybersecurity. Organizations, especially large ones, are often resistant to drastic structural changes, and adding a new role to the leadership team isn’t a decision made lightly.

As businesses become more reliant on AI-driven solutions, the stakes will get higher. AI isn’t just a tool; it’s rapidly becoming the backbone of many critical business operations replacing both, tools and people previously executing a particular function. With AI’s rise, cyber threats will keep evolving. Attackers will increasingly target AI systems, recognizing their strategic importance. Traditional cybersecurity skills, while valuable, don’t translate directly to the unique challenges of AI. The skills gap for AI security will keep widening. Collaboration with various other parts of organization will keep deepening.

Given the factors mentioned above, it’s only a matter of time before organizations recognize the strategic importance of the CAISO role. As AI continues to shape the future of business, CAISOs will find themselves not just reporting to, but being an integral part of, the executive leadership team. Their insights, expertise, and leadership will be pivotal in navigating the challenges and opportunities that AI presents.

While the journey of the CAISO role might start under the umbrella of traditional cybersecurity, its eventual destination is clear: a seat at the executive table.

Potential Challenges With CAISO Introduction

The adoption of a CAISO role in organizations would undoubtedly bring about a range of challenges, both anticipated and unforeseen. Some potential ones include:

Role definition: Clearly defining the boundaries and responsibilities of the CAISO in relation to other roles like CISO, CTO, CIO, and data science leads might be challenging.

Related to that, hierarchy and reporting: Deciding where the CAISO sits in the organizational structure and to whom they report can be contentious. Should they be on the executive team, or report to the CISO or CTO?

Budget allocation: Securing a dedicated budget for AI-specific security initiatives might be challenging, especially if there’s a perception that the traditional cybersecurity budget should cover it.

Dependence on other functions: the CAISO role, at least initially, will be more of a coordinator of resources across a number of different departments, rather than an owner of a dedicated team covering all required competencies. Consider for example the Threat Intelligence function. Keeping up with the latest AI-specific threats, vulnerabilities and mitigation techniques will be a huge challenge. If using the existing cyber threat intelligence team and providers, would AI security receive sufficient attention? If not, is it realistic to build an AI-specific intelligence team?

Skill gap: There’s a significant skill gap in the intersection of AI and security. Finding and retaining talent with expertise in both areas might be difficult. Or, alternatively, getting the budget and the required time to upskill existing team members might present other challenges.

Resistance to change: Existing teams might resist the introduction of a new executive role, seeing it as an encroachment on their territory or an added layer of bureaucracy.

Shadow AI: CISOs are currently reluctant, or ill-equipped to handle AI systems. By the time organizations adopt the CAISO role, shadow AI – AI solutions that are not officially known or under the control of the cybersecurity department – would have proliferated and it would be a major challenge to get them under the control of CAISO without impacting the operations.


As AI continues its meteoric rise, becoming an indispensable tool in nearly every business sector, the need for a dedicated Chief AI Security Officer (CAISO) becomes increasingly evident. The role of the CAISO isn’t merely about ensuring that AI systems function optimally; it’s about guaranteeing their security, ensuring they’re deployed ethically, and navigating the intricate maze of regulatory compliance. With AI’s capabilities expanding daily, the potential risks and ethical dilemmas grow in tandem.

While the concept of a CAISO might seem like a futuristic notion to some, the explosive adoption rate of AI technologies suggests that this isn’t just a distant possibility but an impending reality. Forward-thinking organizations are already contemplating this move.


For 30+ years, I've been committed to protecting people, businesses, and the environment from the physical harm caused by cyber-kinetic threats, blending cybersecurity strategies and resilience and safety measures. Lately, my worries have grown due to the rapid, complex advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI). Having observed AI's progression for two decades and penned a book on its future, I see it as a unique and escalating threat, especially when applied to military systems, disinformation, or integrated into critical infrastructure like 5G networks or smart grids. More about me.

Luka Ivezic
Luka Ivezic

Luka Ivezic is the Lead Cybersecurity Consultant for Europe at the Information Security Forum (ISF), a leading global, independent, and not-for-profit organisation dedicated to cybersecurity and risk management. Before joining ISF, Luka served as a cybersecurity consultant and manager at PwC and Deloitte. His journey in the field began as an independent researcher focused on cyber and geopolitical implications of emerging technologies such as AI, IoT, 5G. He co-authored with Marin the book "The Future of Leadership in the Age of AI". Luka holds a Master's degree from King's College London's Department of War Studies, where he specialized in the disinformation risks posed by AI.

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