AI Disinformation

Introduction to AI-Enabled Disinformation


In recent years, the rise of artificial intelligence (AI) has revolutionized many sectors, bringing about significant advancements in various fields. However, one area where AI has presented a dual-edged sword is in information operations, specifically in the propagation of disinformation. The advent of generative AI, particularly with sophisticated models capable of creating highly realistic text, images, audio, and video, has exponentially increased the risk of deepfakes and other forms of disinformation. These technologies will increasingly enable the creation of fake content that is virtually indistinguishable from authentic material, posing severe threats to public trust, political stability, and social cohesion. This article explores the complexities of AI-enabled disinformation, the challenges it presents, and potential strategies to mitigate its impact.

Understanding AI-Enabled Disinformation

Disinformation, as defined by the European Commission’s High-Level Expert Group on Fake News and Online Disinformation, refers to “false, inaccurate, or misleading information designed, presented and promoted to intentionally cause public harm or for profit.” AI has significantly enhanced the capabilities of disinformation campaigns, making them more effective and harder to detect. The 2016 US presidential election serves as a stark example, where AI, algorithms, and automation amplified the scope and efficiency of disinformation, impacting public opinion and voting behaviors .

The largest disinformation threat is undoubtedly about undermining democracy. Disinformation campaigns aim to manipulate public opinion, degrade trust in media and institutions, discredit political leadership, deepen societal divides, and influence voting decisions . However, the risk of AI-enabled disinformation extends far beyond the political sphere.

Organizations, celebrities, activist groups, criminal groups, and even individuals can leverage AI to generate and distribute malicious information. The democratization of AI tools means that virtually anyone with access to these technologies can produce and disseminate convincing disinformation. For instance, a business competitor might use AI to create false information that damages a rival’s reputation. Celebrities and public figures could find themselves targeted by deepfakes that portray them in compromising situations, impacting their careers and personal lives.

Activist groups might deploy AI-generated content to sway public opinion on contentious issues, while criminal groups could use disinformation to scam individuals or commit fraud. The potential for AI to target individuals is particularly concerning, as highly personalized disinformation can be crafted to exploit specific vulnerabilities and manipulate behavior. This level of targeted manipulation was evident in the psychometric profiling and micro-targeting techniques used during the 2016 US presidential election, where AI analyzed vast amounts of personal data to create tailored messages designed to influence voters .

The implications of AI-enabled disinformation are profound and far-reaching. It threatens to erode the very fabric of democratic societies, disrupt social cohesion, and cause widespread harm to individuals and groups. Addressing this complex issue requires a comprehensive understanding of how AI can be used to create and spread disinformation, and the development of robust strategies to counteract these threats.

The Mechanics of AI in Disinformation

AI systems, especially those utilizing machine learning (ML) techniques, possess the capability to analyze vast datasets, recognize intricate patterns, and generate content that closely mimics human behaviors.

Algorithmic Detection and Dissemination

AI’s ability to process and analyze large volumes of data enables it to detect trending topics in real-time. By leveraging these insights, AI systems can generate tailored disinformation content that exploits current trends, making the false information more likely to be believed and shared. This process is often automated, allowing for the rapid creation and dissemination of disinformation on a scale that would be impossible through manual means.

Key Mechanisms:

  1. Content Generation: AI can automatically generate articles, social media posts, and other forms of content that appear credible and relevant to trending topics. These can include fake news stories, misleading statistics, and sensationalist headlines designed to attract attention.
  2. Bot Networks: Algorithms can create and manage fake social media accounts, known as bots, which disseminate disinformation widely and quickly. These bots can be programmed to interact with genuine users, share false information, and amplify the reach of disinformation campaigns by making the content appear popular and widely accepted.
  3. Amplification: Through the use of automated accounts and strategic posting schedules, AI can ensure that disinformation content reaches a large audience in a short period. This amplification is critical for the spread of disinformation, as it increases the likelihood of the content being seen and believed by real users.

Deep Fakes

Deep fakes represent one of the most alarming applications of AI in the field of disinformation. These are highly realistic, AI-generated videos or audio recordings that can depict individuals saying or doing things they never did. The potential for deep fakes to cause harm is significant, as they can be used to discredit public figures, incite violence, or manipulate political events.

Key Mechanisms:

  1. Video Manipulation: AI can create video footage that looks and sounds real, even to the trained eye. By analyzing and learning from real video footage, AI systems can produce deep fake videos that convincingly show individuals speaking or acting in ways they never did. This technology has been used to fabricate speeches, create fake news reports, and produce compromising footage of individuals.
  2. Audio Fabrication: Similar to video manipulation, AI can generate realistic audio recordings. These can be used to create fake phone calls, interviews, or public statements. The technology can replicate a person’s voice with high fidelity, making it difficult to distinguish between real and fake audio.
  3. Social and Political Impact: The use of deep fakes in political campaigns, social movements, and international relations can have devastating effects. False information presented through deep fakes can sway public opinion, undermine trust in institutions, and provoke conflicts.


AI’s ability to analyze social media activity and other personal data allows it to build detailed profiles of individuals. This profiling enables highly targeted disinformation campaigns, where personalized content is delivered to specific individuals based on their beliefs, behaviors, and vulnerabilities.

Key Mechanisms:

  1. Data Analysis: AI systems can sift through enormous amounts of data from social media platforms, online interactions, and other digital footprints to create comprehensive profiles of users. These profiles can include demographic information, interests, political affiliations, and emotional states.
  2. Personalized Content: Once profiles are created, AI can generate and deliver personalized disinformation content. This content is tailored to resonate with the specific beliefs and biases of each individual, making it more persuasive and effective. For example, a person with strong political views might receive disinformation that reinforces their existing beliefs, while someone concerned about health might be targeted with false information about medical treatments or diseases.
  3. Behavioral Manipulation: By continuously analyzing user responses and adjusting the content accordingly, AI can influence and manipulate user behavior over time. This can lead to changes in voting patterns, consumer behavior, or social attitudes, all driven by the strategic dissemination of disinformation.

Implications and Challenges

The use of AI in disinformation campaigns presents several significant challenges, each demanding attention and action from various stakeholders, including technologists, policymakers, and society at large.

Detection and Mitigation

Identifying AI-generated disinformation is becoming increasingly difficult. Traditional fact-checking methods, which rely heavily on human intervention, are often inadequate in the face of the rapid and automated production of false content by AI systems. The scale and sophistication of AI-generated disinformation can overwhelm human fact-checkers, making it challenging to keep pace with the sheer volume of false information being disseminated.

To effectively combat this threat, it is essential to develop advanced AI tools designed to detect and counteract disinformation. These tools must be capable of real-time analysis, continuously monitoring online platforms for signs of disinformation, including patterns of bot activity and the spread of deep fakes. They also need robust pattern recognition capabilities to identify the unique characteristics of AI-generated content, such as linguistic anomalies or inconsistencies in video and audio recordings. Additionally, integrating efforts across multiple platforms and stakeholders to share data and strategies for identifying and mitigating disinformation is crucial for a comprehensive response.

Ethical Considerations

The ethical implications of using AI for disinformation are profound, with the potential for significant harm affecting individuals, organizations, and societies. AI-generated disinformation can erode public trust in media, institutions, and even in personal relationships. The inability to distinguish between real and fake content can lead to widespread skepticism and cynicism. Victims of deep fakes and targeted disinformation campaigns can suffer severe emotional and psychological distress. Public figures, in particular, are vulnerable to character assassination and reputational damage. Moreover, disinformation campaigns often exploit existing societal tensions, deepening divides and fostering conflict. AI can exacerbate these issues by creating content that inflames passions and polarizes communities.

Ethical Challenges with the Response

Responding to AI-generated disinformation presents its own set of ethical challenges. One significant issue is the risk of overblocking. Automated systems designed to detect and remove disinformation might inadvertently censor legitimate information, negatively impacting freedom of expression. This overinclusiveness can suppress lawful and accurate content mistakenly identified as disinformation.

Another critical concern is the mislabeling of real news as fake. The term “fake news” can be weaponized to discredit genuine news stories and undermine trust in reliable information sources. This tactic can be particularly damaging when used by influential figures or institutions to dismiss unfavorable but truthful reporting, distorting public perception and eroding accountability.

To address these ethical concerns, it is crucial to promote responsible and ethical use of AI. Establishing clear ethical guidelines for the development and deployment of AI technologies is essential, with a focus on minimizing harm and maximizing transparency. Ensuring accountability for individuals and organizations involved in creating and disseminating AI-generated disinformation is vital. Additionally, fostering public awareness about the potential dangers of AI-generated disinformation and educating individuals on critically evaluating the information they encounter online are key steps in mitigating these ethical challenges.

Regulatory Measures

Governments and regulatory bodies must develop comprehensive frameworks to address the misuse of AI in disinformation. Effective regulation should balance the need to combat disinformation with the protection of fundamental rights, such as freedom of expression and privacy.

Creating legal frameworks specifically addressing the creation and spread of AI-generated disinformation is imperative. These frameworks should include clear definitions of what constitutes disinformation and establish penalties for violators. Ensuring transparency in AI systems used for content generation and dissemination is also critical. This involves requiring disclosures about the use of AI in creating content and the data sources used to train these systems.

Encouraging industry cooperation by promoting collaboration between governments, tech companies, and civil society organizations to develop best practices and share information about disinformation threats and mitigation strategies is necessary for a unified response. Protecting privacy by implementing safeguards to prevent the misuse of personal data in AI systems and ensuring regulatory measures comply with existing privacy laws is also crucial.

Addressing AI-Enabled Disinformation

Combatting AI-enabled disinformation requires a multifaceted approach that encompasses technological, regulatory, and educational strategies.

Improved Detection and Correction Mechanisms

One of the most pressing needs in the fight against AI-enabled disinformation is the enhancement of detection and correction mechanisms on social media platforms. These platforms play a pivotal role in the dissemination of information, and their algorithms must be capable of identifying and de-emphasizing false content effectively.

Social media companies can leverage advanced machine learning techniques to better detect patterns associated with disinformation. These algorithms can be trained to recognize the linguistic and contextual markers that often accompany false information. By continuously updating these models, platforms can stay ahead of the evolving tactics used by those who spread disinformation.

Moreover, providing effective corrections and fact-based counter-messages is crucial in mitigating the impact of false information. When users encounter disinformation, they should also see reliable, verified information that counters the falsehoods. This not only helps to correct misconceptions but also reinforces trust in legitimate sources of information.

Algorithmic Auditing

Regular audits of AI systems are essential to ensure that they operate fairly and transparently. Algorithmic auditing involves examining the data, processes, and outcomes of AI systems to identify and correct biases that may have been inadvertently introduced. This process helps to maintain the integrity and reliability of AI systems used in content moderation and disinformation detection.

Legislation such as the proposed Algorithmic Accountability Act in the United States aims to enforce such audits. This act would require companies to conduct regular assessments of their AI systems for biases and discrimination, implement corrective measures, and provide impact assessments. Such regulatory frameworks are vital in promoting accountability and transparency in the deployment of AI technologies.

Technological Solutions for Deep Fakes

Deep fakes, AI-generated videos, and audio recordings that are nearly indistinguishable from real ones, present a significant challenge. These manipulated media can discredit public figures, incite violence, and manipulate political events. Developing technological solutions to detect and authenticate content is critical in combating this threat.

Forensic tools that analyze video and audio files for signs of manipulation are one approach. These tools can detect anomalies such as inconsistencies in lighting, shadows, or audio-visual synchronization that indicate tampering. Additionally, digital provenance solutions, which involve watermarking content at the time of creation, can help verify the authenticity of media files. By comparing the original watermark to the suspected deep fake, it becomes possible to confirm or refute the content’s legitimacy.

Regulatory Frameworks

Crafting regulatory frameworks that balance the need for content moderation with the protection of free speech is a delicate but necessary task. Policymakers must develop laws and policies that address the misuse of AI in disinformation while safeguarding fundamental rights.

Co-regulation, which involves collaboration between governments, tech companies, and civil society, offers a balanced approach. This model allows for shared responsibility and collective action in tackling disinformation. For instance, the EU Code of Practice on Disinformation exemplifies how industry and government can work together to set standards and practices for combating false information.

Moreover, regulations should ensure transparency in the use of AI for content moderation. Platforms should be required to disclose how their algorithms operate, including the data sources used and the criteria for detecting disinformation. This transparency builds trust and allows for public scrutiny and accountability.

Educational Initiatives

Public awareness campaigns and media literacy programs are vital components of the strategy to combat AI-enabled disinformation. Educating individuals about the existence and potential impact of AI-generated disinformation equips them with the skills to identify and critically evaluate false information.

Media literacy programs can teach users how to recognize disinformation, understand the motives behind it, and verify the authenticity of the information they encounter. These programs can be integrated into school curricula, community workshops, and online courses, reaching a broad audience.

Additionally, public awareness campaigns can highlight the dangers of disinformation and the importance of relying on credible sources. By promoting critical thinking and skepticism towards unverified information, these initiatives can help build a more informed and resilient public.


AI-enabled disinformation poses a significant threat to democratic processes, public trust, and social cohesion. While AI can be a potent tool in combating this threat, it also introduces new challenges that require careful consideration and a comprehensive strategy.

Addressing AI-enabled disinformation requires a comprehensive and collaborative approach that combines technological innovation, regulatory oversight, and public education. By enhancing detection mechanisms, conducting regular algorithmic audits, developing technological solutions for deep fakes, crafting balanced regulatory frameworks, and promoting media literacy, society can effectively combat the spread of false information. The goal is to create a digital environment where information is reliable, transparent, and trustworthy, preserving the integrity of democratic processes and social cohesion.


For 30+ years, I've been committed to protecting people, businesses, and the environment from the physical harm caused by cyber-kinetic threats, blending cybersecurity strategies and resilience and safety measures. Lately, my worries have grown due to the rapid, complex advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI). Having observed AI's progression for two decades and penned a book on its future, I see it as a unique and escalating threat, especially when applied to military systems, disinformation, or integrated into critical infrastructure like 5G networks or smart grids. More about me.

Luka Ivezic
Luka Ivezic

Luka Ivezic is the Lead Cybersecurity Consultant for Europe at the Information Security Forum (ISF), a leading global, independent, and not-for-profit organisation dedicated to cybersecurity and risk management. Before joining ISF, Luka served as a cybersecurity consultant and manager at PwC and Deloitte. His journey in the field began as an independent researcher focused on cyber and geopolitical implications of emerging technologies such as AI, IoT, 5G. He co-authored with Marin the book "The Future of Leadership in the Age of AI". Luka holds a Master's degree from King's College London's Department of War Studies, where he specialized in the disinformation risks posed by AI.

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